Shoulder impingement is the condition of inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint. It is one of the most common causes of pain in the adult shoulder. The shoulder is a ball and socket joint. A ball at the top of the upper arm bone, humerus, fits neatly into a socket, called the glenoid, which is part of the shoulder blade, scapula. Shoulder impingement may also be called a swimmer's shoulder, tennis shoulder, rotator cuff tendinitis or bursitis.
Impingement results from pressure on the rotator cuff from part of the shoulder blade (scapula) as the arm is lifted. It is more likely to occur in young and middle aged people who engage in physical activities that require repeated overhead arm movements. The pain may be due to a bursitis or inflammation of the bursa overlying the rotator cuff or a tendonitis of the cuff itself. In some circumstances, a partial tear of the rotator cuff may cause impingement pain.
Individuals with shoulder impingement may experience severe pain at rest and during activities, weakness of the arm and difficulty in raising the hand overhead. Pain at night is also very common.
Diagnosis involves physical examination by the doctor where in the doctor checks for the possible range of movements with the affected shoulder. X-rays and MRI scans may be ordered to see the injury and inflammation.
Conservative Treatment Options
Shoulder impingement can be treated with rest, ice packs and anti-inflammatory drugs. Physical therapy may be advised to strengthen the muscles and steroid injections may be given if pain persists.
Arthroscopic surgery is recommended if the rotator cuff tendons are torn and to remove any bone spurs.